Slovakia (Former Czechoslovakia) International Extradition Treaty with the United States
July 2, 1925, Date-Signed
March 29, 1926, Date-In-Force, Under Review
Treaty signed at Prague on July 2, 1925. It was Ratified by Czechoslovakia on October 22, 1925. Senate advice and consent to ratification was given on March 3, 1926. It was Ratified by the President of the United States on March 23, 1926. Ratifications were exchanged at Washington on March 29, 1926. It Entered into force on March 29, 1926. It was Proclaimed by the President of the United States on March 29, 1926. It was Supplemented and amended by treaty of April 29, 1935.
TREATY BETWEEN THE U.S. OF AMERICA AND THE CZECHOSLOVAK REPUBLIC OF JULY SECOND 1925, CONCERNING THE MUTUAL EXTRADITION OF FUGITIVE CRIMINALS
The United States of America and Czechoslovakia desiring to promote the cause of justice, have resolved to conclude a treaty for the extradition of fugitives from justice, between the two countries and have appointed for that purpose the following Plenipotentiaries:
The President of the United States of America:
Lewis Einstein, Envoy extraordinary and Minister plenipotentiary of the United States of America,
The President of the Czechoslovak Republic:
Dr. Eduard Benes, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Czechoslovak Republic, who, after having communicated to each other their respective full powers, found to be in good and due form, have agreed upon and concluded the following articles:
It is agreed that the Government of the United States and the Government of Czechoslovakia shall, upon requisition duly made as herein provided, deliver up to justice any person, who may be charged with, or may have been convicted of any of the crimes or offenses specified in Article II of the present Treaty committed within the jurisdiction of one of the High Contracting Parties, and who shall seek an asylum or shall be found within the territories of the other; provided that such surrender shall take place only upon such evidence of criminality, as according to the laws of the place where the fugitive or person so charged shall be found, would justify his apprehension and commitment for trial if the crime or offense had been there committed.
Persons shall be delivered up according to the provisions of the present Treaty, who shall have been charged with or convicted of any of the following crimes or offenses:
1. Murder, comprehending the crimes designated by the term parricide, assassination, man-slaughter when voluntary, poisoning or infanticide.
2. Rape, abortion, carnal knowledge of children under the age of fourteen years.
3. Abduction or detention of women or girls for immoral purposes.
6. Wilful and unlawful destruction or obstruction of railroads, which endangers human life.
7. Crimes committed at sea:
a) Piracy, as commonly known and defined by the law of nations, or by statute.
b) Wrongfully sinking or destroying a vessel at sea.
c) Mutiny or conspiracy of two or more members of the crew or other persons on board of a vessel on the high seas, for the purpose of rebelling against the authority of the Captain or Commander of such vessel, or by fraud or violence taking possession of such vessel.
d) Assault on board ship upon the high seas with intent to do bodily harm.
8. Burglary, defined to be the act of breaking into and entering the house of another in the night time with intent to commit a felony therein.
9. The act of breaking into and entering the offices of the Government and public authorities or the offices of banks, banking houses, savings banks, trust-companies, insurance and other companies, or other buildings not dwellings with intent to commit a felony therein.
10. Robbery, defined to be the act of feloniously and forcibly taking from the person of another goods or money by violence or by putting him in fear.
11. Forgery or the utterance of forged papers.
12. The forgery or falsification of the official acts of the Governments, or public authority, including Courts of Justice, or the uttering or fraudulent use of any of the same.
13. The fabrication of counterfeit money, whether coin or paper, counterfeit titles or coupons of public debt, created by National, State, Provincial, Territorial, Local or Municipal Governments, bank notes or other instruments of public credit, counterfeit seals, stamps, dies and marks of State or public administrations, and the utterance, circulation or fraudulent use of the above mentioned objects.
14. Embezzlement or criminal malversation committed within the jurisdiction of one or the other party by public officers or depositaries, where the amount embezzled exceeds one hundred dollars or the Czechoslovak equivalent.
15. Embezzlement by any person or persons, hired, salaried or employed, to the detriment of their employers or principals, when the crime or offense is punishable by imprisonment or other corporal punishment by the laws of both countries, and where the amount embezzled exceeds one hundred dollars or the Czechoslovak equivalent.
16. Kidnapping of minors or adults, defined to be the abduction or detention of a person or persons, in order to exact money from them, their families or any other person or persons, or for any other unlawful end.
17. Larceny, defined to be the theft of effects, personal property, or money, of the value of twenty-five dollars or more or the Czechoslovak equivalent.
18. Obtaining money, valuable securities or other property by false pretences or receiving any money, valuable securities or other property knowing the same to have been unlawfully obtained, where the amount of money or the value of the property so obtained or received exceeds one hundred dollars or the Czechoslovak equivalent.
19. Perjury or subornation of perjury.
20. Fraud or breach of trust by a bailee, banker, agent, factor, trustee, executor, administrator, guardian, director or officer of any company or corporation, or by any one in any fiduciary position, where the amount of money or the value of the property misappropriated exceeds one hundred dollars or the Czechoslovak equivalent.
21. Crimes and offenses against the laws of both countries for the suppression of slavery and slave trading.
22. Wilful desertion or wilful non-support of minor or dependent children.
The extradition is also to take place for participation in any of the aforesaid crimes as an accessory before or after the fact or in any attempt to commit any of the aforesaid crimes; provided such participation or attempt be punishable by imprisonment by the laws of both Contracting Parties.
The provisions of the present Treaty shall not import a claim of extradition for any crime or offense of a political character, nor for acts connected with such crimes or offenses; and no persons surrendered by or to either of the High Contracting Parties in virtue of this Treaty shall be tried or punished for a political crime or offense committed before his extradition.
The State applied to or Courts of that State shall decide whether the crime or offense is of a political character or not.
When the offense charged comprises the act either of murder or assassination or of poisoning, either consummated or attempted, the fact that the offense was committed or attempted against the life of the Sovereign or Head of any State or against the life of any member of his family, shall not be deemed sufficient to sustain that such crime or offense was of a political character; or was an act connected with crimes or offenses of a political character.
No person shall be tried for any crime or offense committed before his extradition other than that for which he was surrendered.
A fugitive criminal shall not be surrendered under the provisions hereof, when, from lapse of time or other lawful cause, according to the laws of either of the countries within the jurisdiction of which the crime or offense was committed, the criminal is exempt from prosecution or punishment for the offense for which the surrender is asked.
If the person claimed should be under examination or under punishment in the State applied to for other crime or offense, his extradition shall be deferred until the conclusion of the trial or, in case of his conviction, until the full execution of any punishment imposed upon him.
Yet this circumstance shall not be a hindrance to deciding the request for the extradition in the shortest time possible.
If a fugitive criminal claimed by one of the parties hereto, shall be also claimed by one or more powers pursuant to treaty provisions, on account of crimes or offenses committed within their jurisdiction, such criminal shall be delivered to that State whose demand is first received unless its demand is waived. This Article shall not affect such treaties as have already previously been concluded by one of the Contracting Parties with other states.
Under the stipulations of this Treaty, neither of the High Contracting Parties shall be bound to deliver up its own citizens.
The expense of arrest, detention, examination and transportation of the accused shall be paid by the Government which has preferred the demand for extradition (see Article XI).
Everything found in the possession of the fugitive criminal at the time of his arrest, whether being the proceeds of the crime or offense, or which may be material as evidence in making proof of the crime, shall so far as practicable according to the laws of either of the High Contracting Parties, be delivered up with his person at the time of surrender. Nevertheless, the rights of a third party with regard to the articles referred to, shall be duly respected.
The stipulations of the present treaty shall be applicable to all territory wherever situated, belonging to either of the High Contracting Parties or in the occupancy and under the control of either of them, during such occupancy or control.
Requisitions for the surrender of fugitives from justice shall be made by the respective diplomatic agents of the High Contracting Parties. In the event of the absence of such agents from the country or its seat of Government, or where extradition is sought from territory included in the preceding paragraph, other than the United States or Czechoslovakia, requisitions may be made by superior consular officers.
In case of urgency, the application for arrest and detention may be addressed directly to the competent magistrate in conformity to the statutes in force.
The person provisionally arrested shall be released, unless within two months from the date of commitment in the United States–or from the date of arrest in Czechoslovakia, the formal requisition for surrender, with the documentary proofs hereinafter described, be made as aforesaid by the diplomatic agent of the demanding Government, or in his absence, by a consular officer thereof.
If the fugitive criminal shall have been convicted of the crime or offense for which his extradition is asked, a copy of the sentence of the court before which such conviction took place, duly authenticated, shall be produced. If, however, the fugitive is merely charged with crime, a duly authenticated copy of the warrant of arrest in the country where the crime was committed, and of the depositions upon which such warrant may have been issued, shall be produced, with such other evidence or proof as may be deemed competent in the case.
In every case of a request made by either of the High Contracting Parties, for the arrest, detention or extradition of fugitive criminals, the appropriate legal officers of the country where the proceedings of extradition are had, shall assist the officers of the Government demanding the extradition before the respective judges and magistrates, by every legal means within their power.
The present Treaty of which the English and Czechoslovak texts are equally authentic shall be ratified by the High Contracting Parties in accordance with their respective constitutional methods and shall take effect on the date of the exchange of ratifications which shall take place at Washington as soon as possible.
The present Treaty shall remain in force for a period of ten years and in case neither of the High Contracting Parties shall have given notice one year before the expiration of that period of its intention to terminate the Treaty, it shall continue in force until the expiration of one year from the date on which such notice of termination shall be given by either of the High Contracting Parties.
In witness whereof the above named Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty and have hereunto affixed their seals.
Done in duplicate at Prague this second day of July, nineteen hundred and twenty five.
Dr. EDUARD BENES
Slovakia (Former Czechoslovakia) Extradition Treaty-Supplementary with the United States
April 29, 1935, Date-Signed
August 28, 1935, Date-In-Force, Under Review
Treaty signed at Washington on April 29, 1935, supplementing and amending treaty of July 2, 1925. Senate advice and consent to ratification was given on June 5, 1935. It was Ratified by the President of the United States on June 15, 1935. It was Ratified by Czechoslovakia on August 17, 1935. Ratifications were exchanged at Prague on August 28, 1935. It Entered into force on August 28, 1935. It was Proclaimed by the President of the United States on August 30, 1935.
The United States of America and the Czechoslovak Republic, being desirous of enlarging the list of crimes and offenses on account of which extradition may be granted under the treaty concluded between the two countries on July 2, 1925, and of amending Article IV of that treaty, with a view to the better administration of justice and the prevention of crime within their respective territories and jurisdictions, have resolved to conclude a supplementary treaty for this purpose and have appointed as their plenipotentiaries, to wit
The President of the United States of America: Mr. Cordell Hull, Secretary of State of the United States of America; The President of the Czechoslovak Republic: Dr. Ferdinand Veverka, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Czechoslovak Republic in Washington, Who, after having communicated to each other their respective full powers, which were found to be in due and proper form, have agreed to and concluded the following articles:
ARTICLE I The following crimes and offenses are added to the list numbered 1 to 22 in Article II of the said treaty of July 2, 1925, on account of which extradition may be granted, that is to say: 23. Crimes and offenses against the laws of bankruptcy.
ARTICLE II The present treaty shall be considered as an integral part of the said extradition treaty of July 2, 1925, and Article II of the last mentioned treaty shall be read as if the list of crimes and offenses therein contained had originally comprised the additional crimes and offenses specified and numbered 23 in the first article of the present treaty.
ARTICLE III Article IV of the said treaty of July 2, 1925, is hereby amended by adding thereto the following words, “or be extradited to another country, unless he shall have been allowed one month to leave the country after having been set at liberty as a result of the disposition of the charges upon which he was extradited”, so that the article will now read: “No person shall be tried for any crime or offense committed before his extradition other than that for which he was surrendered, or be extradited to another country, unless he shall have been allowed one month to leave the country after having been set at liberty as a result of the disposition of the charges upon which he was extradited.”
ARTICLE IV The present treaty shall be ratified by the High Contracting Parties in accordance with their respective constitutional method, and shall take effect on the date of the exchange of ratifications which shall take place at Prague as soon as possible.
In witness whereof the above named plenipotentiaries have signed the present treaty in both the English and Czechoslovak languages, each of which texts is equally authentic, and have hereunto affixed their seals. Done, in duplicate, at Washington, this 29th day of April, 1935.
February 6, 2006, Date-Signed
February 1, 2010, Date-In-Force
Douglas McNabb and other members of the firm practice and write extensively on matters involving Federal Criminal Defense, INTERPOL Red Notice Removal, International Extradition and OFAC SDN List Removal.
The author of this blog is Douglas McNabb. Please feel free to contact him directly at email@example.com or at one of the offices listed above.